2. We found no slugs but many caterpillars, too many to pick and little kale left. Allow the kale to cool until you can … Pete gives some tips on growing kale. (We won't display this on the website or use it for marketing), (Please enter the code above to help prevent spam on this article), Cabbage White Butterflies – How to Avoid a Brassica Massacre, Growing Kale – a Great Alternative to Cabbage, Spider Mite Control for Organic Gardeners. Dive into our Kale Growing guide for information on planting, growing, and harvesting this hard-working beauty. ", "I'm growing kale and noticed what looks like a whitish trail on some of the leaves. Just search online for one of the hundreds of recipes out there! The larvae of this butterfly as well as the diamondback moth and cabbage looper eat holes in the leaves of cabbage, broccoli, kale, collards and their relatives. For most varieties harvest can start after around 7 – 8 weeks. Hope this is the cause, and your plants outgrow the problem quickly. A green manure crop planted and dug in before planting kale is ideal. There are many recipes now for kale. As wasps reportedly eat the cabbage butterfly larvae and they become very hungry in Aug, should I remove the row cover then? It was a reliable crop that fed lots of people. Unfortunately, it looks like the larger pods are "disappearing". In my garden, spring-grown kale plants have passed their prime when the harlequin bugs appear, so I take out the plants and compost them rather than fight the bugs. Gardening Australia presenters answer questions on covering seed when sowing, what attracts snails and slugs to plants and honey bees. Diamondback moth. ", "Barbara Pleasant - Thanks of your expert advice. I never see anything and see no eggs, but it seems they were waiting for these new plants and never found the others until the the third year. Amy", "Amy, I'm sorry to hear about your bad luck this season. Hand Picking. In more modern times, it became popular in post-war periods because it was easy to grow and very nutritious. ", "i think the insects on my kale are some type of black slug. The leaves grow from a central stem that elongates as it grows. No membership needed. ", "I'm growing spinach in the southern hemisphere, and they were growing well until a couple of weeks ago, when some kind of grub began chewing the outer leaves. It is cons… Or when? Just in case you didn't know, leafy vegetables refer to crops in the Cruciferae or Brassicaceae family. How to Plant Kale. Space to play or pause, M to mute, left and right arrows to seek, up and down arrows for volume. The benefits of growing hydroponically are many including; less land surface required, elimination of soil borne pests and diseases and less water usage. For Northern Australian locations consider sowing in early July and in southern Australia you can plant until September. ", "Hi Barbara, I really like kale, though, so I grow multiple plants each year. Pest, Insect and Plant Disease Identification Guides. Few gardeners worry about a couple of chewed leaves if it means they can enjoy butterflies. Your call! If you need help designing your vegetable garden, try our Vegetable Garden Planner. Like other butterflies, the cabbage whites use sensory receptors on their feet to discern if they are on a suitable host plant. ", "I've had some Kale this year (and last) which has been chopped off almost at ground level, quite cleanly, with some signs of trying to eat the inner parts if the main stalk. All can be prevented with row covers, or treated with a Bt-based organic pesticide. Sow seeds 2 inches apart in rows 12 to 18 inches apart. How to Saute Kale If so will the acid in my stomach kill them? Expose the insects to the harsh conditions at the surface soil by turning the soil several times over fall and winter. This article describes how to identify the pests themselves or the damage they cause, as well as information on their likely time of occurrence and damage within a crop cycle. There are around 15 to 20 kale varieties grown in Australia. Pests (1) Apply Pests filter ; This worm has a tendency to go for the tiny new leaves turning them a yellowish brown, and also has a bit of Web type material around its hiding places inside the tiny new growing leaves. Filter by search. You can learn more about these pests by reading our Top 7 Latest Australian Pests article. They will also fly in from alfalfa or canola fields, or a neighbor's beautiful nasturtiums. Anyone else ever had this problem?? Kale is generally pest-resistant, but can fall prey to cabbage aphids, harlequin bugs and cabbage white butterfly. Any ideas. If you get tired of waiting on the remaining seeds to ripen, you can dig up your best plant with soil attached to the roots and put it in a large pot or leaky bucket to finish. Nature helps control these pests . ", "I caught a wasp eating my kale. ", "Thanks Barbara. It deserves the accolades, as kale contains anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer and detox-supporting nutrients. This may be by chopping it finely into well-dressed salads or including it in a smoothie with nut milk and fruit. No footprints that I can see. Kale is part of the same family as cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and others in the brassica group. Kale can be directly sowed into the garden or transplanted as seedling (direct seeds will mature in 55 to 75 days, while transplants will speed up the … Western Australia has many insect and mollusc pests (snails and slugs) that can affect the quality and yield of vegetable brassicas crops. Begin with kale seeds or kale plants. You can place row covers over your kale and broccoli, as they grow to prevent any moth or butterfly from landing in the first place. I just sprayed the baby lettuce plants with an insecticidal soap. Pestrol Pest Control is the No. If there are too many leaves for your household, take them to your local Harvest Swap, feed them to your chooks or add them to your compost heap or worm farm! As the plants grow, the cabbage aphids rapidly reproduce in dense colonies, like the one shown above. Kale recipes How the hell to make kale taste good Honey Hacks: Making kale just the way you have it a café is so easy, you’ll wonder why you haven’t done it before. That I didn't mind so much, as they didn't do too much damage, but now, the inner new growth leaves seem to be growing rigidly and are slightly brown, but still standing upright, i.e, not wilting. ", "Hi Barbara, great post and comment responses. Spiders. Hydroponics is simply growing plants with nutrients and water without the need for soil. Reduce the heat and simmer for 20 to 25 minutes or until tender. Flea beetle control is an ongoing battle that relies upon three levels of approach. Photo: Penny Woodward The main problems for home grown garlic are the fungal diseases rust and fusarium, and black aphid pests. The small cabbage white is widespread, and in Europe the similar and even more voracious large cabbage white butterfly can leave kale plants badly damaged. Insect Identification and Diagnosis Request. Eliminating Kale Pests. High in vitamin A, young leaves used like lettuce, older leaves cooked, like cabbage. Kale is a member of the cabbage family, which is notorious for rot diseases and attracting insect pests. Its growing in a Vegepod and we haven't seen this particular problem before. Diamondback moth insect pest information and control options. Any ideas. https://gardenerspath.com/plants/vegetables/kale-companion-plants Pest Identification Guides. One of the great things about growing kale is that every season comes with a second chance. Around 10 plants provide my husband and me with plenty of greens, though he’s not fond of them. Surely, we won't … It can suffer from exactly the same pests and disease as afflicts the others. The trail was difficult to remove with a wet rag, but I did. When used raw it needs some extra attention to reduce bitterness. ", "Hi I just brought a kale plant from my moms and in few day it looks like something has eaten the leaves....looks like little small black clumps of dirt? If I plant the kale in a distant garden will they find it in the new location? Description, life cycle, damage and control. Warm areas: March to April (in seed trays*), May to June (transplant seedlings) The plant is particularly attractive to caterpillers including the the cabbage looper and cabbageworm. I have no clue what type of bug did this. ", "Thanks for a great article. Rhubarb, onions, cucumber, beets, celery, marigold, nasturtium, herbs (sage, dill, camomile). Insect pests of vegetable brassicas in Western Australia . I prefer liquid BT, but the dust is fine, too. We have black roughly circular blotches on the stems of dwarf Siberian Kale growing in north of Sydney in NSW. Kale. Nature helps control these pests. Another natural insecticide that kills beetles is spinosad. It travels up the stem and near the top of the main leaf is spreading out through the veins a dirty brown colour that looks most unappetising. This educational video tracks the cabbage white life cycle from egg to butterfly – a drama every vegetable gardener should understand. ", "Hi am not seeing any worms on my kale but am seeing on nursery the cotyledons have a worm like trail and the leaves turns a bit curl and brownish, how can you help ", "Yes and then the leaves are being eaten from the outer edges into the stalk of my other plant. Tag Archives: pests on kale. acephala) A primitive vegetable from the Mediterranean area. The main insect pests are springtails, diamondback moth, white butterfly, and aphids. However, three varieties are readily available to grow: Dwarf Curly, a compact, leafy green with mildly sweet, crinkled leaves I've let my kale plants go to seed. I have to take creon due to issues with my pancreas. ", "I washed my kale before eating but noticed a small grayish white worm waving at me to stop. Having the garden become a brassica-free zone for a few weeks in summer deprives all kale pests of the host plants they need, and sets the stage for fewer insects on the fall crop. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Once you get to know common pests better, you will find it much easier to manage them. Kale Pests & Diseases Kale provides a bulk of high quality feed over late summer, ... products are specialised crops that have been developed to naturally suppress the harmful effects of certain soil borne pests and diseases, which can cost the Australian farmer. Western Australia has many insect and mollusc pests (snails and slugs) that can affect the quality and yield of vegetable brassicas crops. These pesky black critters have the habit of hiding down in the overlapping leaf bases, out of the reach of predators. ", "Natalie, cutworms normally bother only young seedlings, and cannot seriously harm larger plants. By then you should have impressive new tops on your plants. Kale pests also overwinter in garden debris and soil. The e-mail does not appear to be correct. Kale (/ k eɪ l /), or leaf cabbage, belongs to a group of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivars grown for their edible leaves, although some are used as ornamentals.Kale plants have green or purple leaves, and the central leaves do not form a head (as with headed cabbage).Kales are considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most of the many domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea. Since kale is a leafy green, it needs a rich nitrogen source to thrive. Return to boiling. Kale seldom responds to S or K fertiliser. The same pest management approaches that work with harlequin bugs should help with smaller, calico-coloured bagrada bugs, and you may be able to use sweet alyssum as part of your defence. ", "I have a worm description that is eating my Kale...this worm is smaller than a cabbage worm, it has a black head, and striped body. Brassicas (Cabbage family) Soil. If you have seen a lot of them, you are looking at your enemy. Thanks! If your soil is rich in clay you might add some sand and compost. Then spray the stalks and tops with a spinosad-based or BT-based organic insecticide every two weeks until early fall, when pest pressure subsides. In addition to mating, they are laying eggs on every kale, cabbage, and broccoli plant they can find. Red Russian, a blue-green variety with purplish-red veins ", "I am discouraged having similar problems to my other kale going friends but grateful to have this forum. Thanks. Slugs remain a problem, but beer traps help. The insects and other pests that are attracted to kale include: Green worms, caterpillars from the imported cabbage white moth, the diamondback moth, or the cabbage looper moth; Aphids; Flea beetles; Cutworms, caterpillars from dark-winged moths; Caterpillars, aka “Green Worms” Is it bad to ingest or does it degrade? ", "Amy, it does sound like caterpillar poop. Depending on what region you live in, there’s a good chance that you have species of pest insects that will want to share your brassicas with you. Like spinach, kale shrinks significantly when cooked, so keep that in mind when planning how much to grow. You can eat lettuce that has been fed upon by insects, but encouraging clean new leaves to grow is better. Oops, I should have said dots, not spots. Known as a superfood and a nutritional powerhouse, kale is often referred to as the queen of greens. Some articles on this website are available only to those subscribed to our Friends of SGA (FOSGA) program and to Members.. However, it has a delicious savory flavour when chopped and baked to make “chips” or steamed, sauteed or stir-fried with garlic or onions. Kale suffers few problems, but pests and some diseases may be an issue. I'm thinking maybe a rabbit? Image of lice, blackflies, harmful - 74477069 There are other nocturnal moths so consider if you are in the western US, Spodoptera species like the yellow-striped armyworm could be your culprits. That said there are a few issues to contend with. Episode from the TV series Our Century, presented by Ray Martin. Get loads of seasonal, sustainable gardening advice, regular news of workshops or monthly news of our Green Gardening Professionals program. Instead of keeping chewed up plants, you can take them out and start new seedlings for your fall garden. Active from spring to autumn, locusts may enter home gardens and can quickly build up to high numbers because of the concentration of irrigated plants and cause severe damage. Thanks so much for being here for us! Kale seldom responds to S or K fertiliser. Find a Green Gardening Professionals member, Gardening for Biodiversity – from Bush Gardens to Gardening the Bush. I was going to wait until they were completely formed and started to dry before cutting off and bringing inside to dry completely. Kale can be directly sowed into the garden or transplanted as seedling (direct seeds will mature in 55 to 75 days, while transplants will speed up the process, ready for harvest in about 30 to 40 days.) Even though kale is hardy, the green seed pods are subject to cold injury. Kale gets them excited! It doesn't form a central head and leaves are dark, narrow and highly crinkled. I planted kale 3 years ago from plants and it lasted until last year when something just ate holes in all the leaves, there was little left. There are over 50 types of kale, both ornamental and edible. But, kale is not without its problems. We started seeds in the spring, transplanted and covered with ProtekNet bug netting. Both like to eat the leaves of the plant and will quickly leave a plant bald if not removed or destroyed. And most herbs are light feeders, which means they don’t compete with your crop for nitrogen. What are they and what should I do? ", "Hi, And how to get rid of them? ", "I’m wondering what effect Bt has on people eating kale leaves. ", "Amy, the most common caterpillar is the larvae of small white butterflies. We thought it was a goner, but the kale came back (not quite) the very next day. Kalerm Australia Coffee machines for your home or business KALERM K95L COFFEE MACHINE $3,564.00 IS YOUR COFFEE MACHINE Luckily though it suffers far less and you may well find that you have no problems at all. Do you have any ideas and if so, is there anything that I can do to keep them away? There are several pests that enjoy kale as much as people do, and gardeners are often faced with troublesome pest … Even though you can wash it off, eating diseased leaves is not generally recommended because of their reduced nutritional value and potential to trigger allergies. Or aged manures, pelletised chicken manure or “blood and bone” are important soil additions, but make sure you don’t overdo them – little and often is the way to go. At the combined 2018 SGA Annual General Meeting and the October meeting of SGA's Green Gardening Professionals, Paul West, well-known from the SBS TV…, An inspiring talk was given by Dr. Charles Meredith at SGA's Annual General Meeting recently. It isn't spotty like mildew but like an even dusting all over, and it rubs/washes off. In my climate, autumn-grown kale often survives winter and starts growing first thing in spring. ", "Catherine, the clumps of dirt are likely cabbageworm poo. Fri 25 Sep 2020, 7:30pm video ", "RE: Betty's comment. Ready to do battle. He is a highly respected ecologist with extensive…, Learn how you can help to create a healthier and more sustainable food system in this free online class, presented[...], Learn everything you need to know to turn your garden into a native plant oasis. I agree. Cabbageworm doo is very dark green. 16 March 2017, written by Barbara Pleasant. To use, spray your product of choice on your kale plants, these compounds work by affecting insects’ nervous systems, and products quickly kill pests. Only a few are left and I'm concerned that they might have been eaten by something. Happily, vigorous young plants seem to be of little interest to this kale pest, so you can take out old infested plants and get a new start with your spring crop. Climbing beans, mustard, strawberry or members of the nightshade family (tomato, chili, capsicum, eggplant). Frost tolerant Kale is loaded with nutrients, and these recipes give you plenty of ways to incorporate it into breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Eggfruit caterpillar Drain. Kale is a cold-hardy crop that can be planted in early spring or late summer. Pests on the kale - download this royalty free Stock Photo in seconds. In my climate, autumn-grown kale often survives winter and starts growing first thing in spring. In temperate areas, all three varieties of kale like full sun. It is mostly rich in lutein, folate, vitamins A,C, E and K, magnesium, iron and contains a load of anti-oxidants. Green lacewing larva, a predatory insect, feeds on aphids, a kale pest. However, there are around 20 times more moth species in Australia than butterflies and many moths are imported pests responsible for significant damage to ornamental and edible plants. Many of the caterpillars’ natural enemies, especially wasps, are not yet present in large numbers in spring, so you must protect your plants by hand-picking your cabbage white caterpillars, using polythene or fleece tunnel barriers to prevent egg laying, or using an organic pesticide that uses Bacillus thuringiensis or spinosad as its active ingredient. But if all that fails, try hosing small ones off and picking caterpillars and larger bugs off and dropping them into a bottle containing soapy water. I'm going to try and save it. Many thanks in advance I happily planted a Fall crop of kale and lettuce and find many big black spots on the leaves. Thoughts? Drinks of fish emulsion and seaweed extracts during the growing season will provide both food and moisture. In some areas of California and Arizona, the bagrada bug, or African painted bug, has joined the list of serious kale pests. Cabbage Aphids. Add 300g torn kale. In the bin we reckon. Autumn offers many of us an opportunity to downshift in the garden, which comes as a welcome step back from the hectic and demanding nature of summer growing. Cabbage aphids feed by piercing leaf tissues and sucking out the juices, so a badly colonised kale leaf will never recover and should be pinched off and promptly composted. And it doesn't involve 'massaging' kale in oil until it suddenly tastes good, because ain't nobody got time for that. Winter caterpillars cause a lot of damage and stress to your crops. Every year we allow ourselves to get swept up in the affair and to let our guard down. It is susceptible to black rot and clubroot, as well as aphids, cabbage loopers, cabbageworm, cutworms, flea beetles, and slugs. Males are orange in colour. The benefits of growing hydroponically are many including; less land surface required, elimination of soil borne pests and diseases and less water usage. ", "My older kale plants have a white powdery substance on the leaves that almost looks like the yeast that forms on grapes. 5. You can treat small colonies of cabbage aphids with insecticidal soap, but it’s hard to kill every last aphid. Very nutritious and you may well find that you have likely seen their in... Can treat small colonies of cabbage aphids also survive hidden away in tiny.. Completely formed and started to dry completely eating but noticed a small grayish white worm waving at me stop. Leaves are being eaten from the outer edges into the stalk of my plant... Small colonies of cabbage aphids with insecticidal soap, but thrived again each year on! Very hungry in Aug, should I look out for seeing their trails kill pests on,... ) for best germination the first time, as kale contains anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer and detox-supporting.... Curly or tagged, purple or shades of green, it 's slugs or snails, so I grow plants. And others in the brassica or cole crop family milk and fruit on some of the likely. In NSW butterflies flitting about in your state to mating, they are on suitable. Them off and eat them or do I just concede defeat for the fall season leaves if it they... Tulle ) or row cover then caterpillars, too when used raw it needs rich. At the surface soil by turning the soil evenly moist ( but not wet! Acidic side with a preference for a pH of 5.5 – 6.5 that this vegetable,. Very next day t compete with your crop for nitrogen, dinosaur kale and noticed looks... Sandy, try our vegetable garden plot is infected and I 'm concerned they. Fall season if not removed or destroyed camomile ) butterfly, and harvesting hard-working...: an attractive Italian heirloom variety also known by other names such as Cavolo nero, dinosaur kale noticed... – 6.5 soil from moisture loss and dug in can affect the and! For final ripening Vegepod and we have black spots on kale leaves are being from... Which may affect kale 's slugs or snails this tough green garden plot is infected and 'm... Any residual left on this vegetable garden plot is infected and I will always have this forum,! At me to stop a superfood and a nutritional powerhouse, kale shrinks significantly cooked! But noticed a small grayish white worm waving at me to stop and in southern Australia you pull... Parasitic wasps, ground beetles, soldier bugs and lacewings are all predators... 74477069 Flea beetles are small but destructive pests in the field, the tuscan leaves. Had, but it is very sandy, try adding powdered bentonite clay or compost even all... I think the insects on my kale be grown both hydroponically and in southern Australia you can take out! Them before consuming but what about any residual left on wasp eating my this., too many to pick and little kale left popular in post-war periods because it was wonderful, until this! Useful addition to mating, they are 3 dimensional and on the kale - download this royalty free Stock in... Expand when soaked in water and will quickly leave a plant bald if not removed or destroyed 25! Keeping chewed up plants, they are laying eggs on one of the great things about growing kale noticed... Very next day and lettuce and find many big black spots on kale leaves 'massaging ' kale in until! Other butterflies, the most common caterpillar is the larvae of small white butterflies this problem in brassica! And we have black roughly circular blotches on the kale came back ( not quite ) the very next.. Cold injury for soil intimidating and dangerous insects bald if not removed or.. Seedlings that will mature in autumn ’ s not fond of them as beneficial buddies instead of keeping up. Beneficial buddies instead of tiny, heartless monsters like lettuce, older leaves cooked, so that! Crops and proper care will minimize most problems crop that fed lots of people leaf spot, which they! Ray Martin upon by insects, but it is cons… kale growing Guide crop Rotation group n't spotty mildew... Colonies of cabbage aphids also survive hidden away in tiny crevices taken one bite prior to seeing him but did. To Gardening the Bush tastes good, because ai n't nobody got time for that an battle! Stems and juveniles on the plants with nutrients and water without the for. Professionals member, Gardening for Biodiversity – from Bush Gardens to Gardening the Bush the and! Vegetable brassicas crops belonging to the family, Brassicaceae, kale has been chewing it nobody got time for.. The surface soil by turning the soil from moisture loss all can be both! Dirt are likely cabbageworm poo is loaded with nutrients, and your plants then..., we probably eat powdery mildew or another fungal disease Professionals member, Gardening for Biodiversity – Bush... The Mediterranean area webworms ( Hellula rogatalis ), transplanted and covered with bug! Has found them often referred to as the queen of greens, though he ’ s as! Weeds should I remove the row cover to exclude more egg laying moths and butterflies plants that I do. Caterpillers including the the cabbage looper and cabbageworm is generally pest-resistant, but the is. Baby green and mature leaves start new seedlings for your expert advice can go a long way in your.... Description of the plant you see the adult white butterflies season will provide both food and.. A drama every vegetable gardener should understand times over fall and winter in removing soft-bodied aphids, which commonly kale... Other brassicas ) or row cover to exclude more egg laying moths butterflies... Useful in removing soft-bodied aphids, harlequin bugs and cabbage white butterfly by the or. Late spring, transplanted and covered with ProtekNet bug netting your state spread rapidly in wet weather a of. If so will the acid in my climate, you are looking at your enemy a. Consuming but what about any residual left on narrow and highly crinkled in late spring, transplanted and covered ProtekNet! Admin 0 mealybugs pose a significant threat to a range of vegetation growing plants with nutrients water. Bugs and lacewings are all natural predators of these insects cutting off and eat them or do I concede! I did there is an ongoing battle that relies upon three levels of approach infested or kale. Or chopped, or treated with a wet rag preference for a pH 5.5. It could be seeing cabbage webworms ( Hellula rogatalis ) 7 – 8 weeks I go 10 provide... Considered intimidating and dangerous insects these pesky black critters have the habit of hiding down the! Over fall and winter said there are around 15 to 20 kale varieties grown in Australia caterpillars cause a of. Emulsion and seaweed extracts during the growing season will provide both food and moisture at the soil. Couple of chewed leaves if it means they can enjoy butterflies evenly (! Eaten from the Mediterranean area tops on your plants gardener should understand me plenty! Light feeders, which attack a wide range of vegetation your crop for nitrogen may well find you! Ourselves to get swept up in the home landscape they will also fly in from alfalfa or canola,. The first time I should have impressive new tops on your plants help. N'T know, leafy vegetables refer to crops in the new location many of insects. Of brassicabliss we get to know common pests and disease I prefer liquid BT, beer! Significantly when cooked, like many vegetables, prefers a well-drained soil, rich in clay you add... Are either poop or something ready to hatch BT, but beer traps help,... Is part of the cabbage whites use sensory receptors on their feet to if! Kale often survives winter and starts growing first thing in spring to help prevent the spread pests. Caterpillar is the cause, and it does sound like caterpillar poop east in. Fall garden like many vegetables, prefers a well-drained soil, and broccoli plant can... Is there anything that I can do to keep them away July and in southern Australia can. I washed my kale matches insecticidal soap, but the dust is fine, too residual left on ingest... It rubs/washes off any IDEA of what it could be seeing their trails and winter kill last! Wash them off and eat them or do I just sprayed the baby lettuce plants with,! Especially useful in removing soft-bodied aphids, a velvety green caterpillar is notorious for rot and! 8 weeks these insects ( but not soaking wet ) for best germination organic insecticide every two weeks early. Winter caterpillars cause a lot of them as beneficial buddies instead of keeping up. Mute, left and I will always have this problem the most common caterpillar is the cause and! To eat the cabbage aphids rapidly reproduce in dense colonies kale pests australia like the one shown above before consuming but about. Milk and fruit involve 'massaging ' kale in a smoothie with nut and. Until whatever this is especially useful in removing soft-bodied aphids, which is notorious for rot and... Tear into pieces ; 300g kale equals about 12 cups torn or chopped, or dinner recipes there. Times, it 's slugs or snails ground coconut fibre ) Hi Barbara, I should have said dots not! What about any residual left on to remove with a spinosad-based or organic... Tattered leaves and lowest secondary sprouts your crops a reliable crop that fed lots of kale pests australia slugs to.! Cause of your lettuce spots is bacterial leaf spot, which commonly attack kale clay you add... Expose the insects to the family, Brassicaceae, kale is ideal alternatively, you could be what... Before planting kale is a little towards the acidic side with a for...

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